Simplified Privacy

Sources for: Browser Fingerprints Lead to Price Discrimination

These are the sources for our earlier article on Browser Fingerprints Enabling Price Discrimination.

Kare 11
The Target app price switch: What you need to know
Author: Chris Hrapsky
Published: 1/27/2019, Updated: February 6, 2019

Money Talks News
How Target Snooped on Shoppers, Changed Prices Based on Location
Bob Sullivan
February 16, 2019
“For instance, Target’s app price for a particular Samsung 55-inch Smart TV was $499.99, but when we pulled into the parking lot of the Minnetonka store, that price suddenly increased to $599.99 on the app,” the station said.

Biz Journals
Report: Target’s app charges higher prices to customers near a store
By Alex Van Abbema
Feb 1, 2019

Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany
University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands
An Empirical Study on Price Differentiation Based on System Fingerprints
By Thomas Hupperich, Dennis Tatang
Dec 8 2017
Full PDF:

or Summary via Semantics Scholar:
Los Angeles (USA), London (United Kingdom), Berlin (Germany), and Tokyo (Japan). had higher rates for Pakistan than US. US was lowest. Take advantage of poverty and lack of knowledge.
Changing language, for example to German increased price.

Harvard Business Review
How Retailers Use Personalized Prices to Test What You’re Willing to Pay
By Rafi Mohammed
October 20, 2017

Pro Publica
The Tiger Mom Tax: Asians Are Nearly Twice as Likely to Get a Higher Price from Princeton Review
By Julia Angwin, Surya Mattu and Jeff Larson
Sept. 1, 2015

CBS News
Can shopping online make you a victim of price discrimination?
January 9, 2017
“charge more to PC users than mobile”

The Guardian
Cookie monsters: why your browsing history could mean rip-off prices
Arwa Mahdawi

Tor version of Guardian article:

The Click Hub
Do Browser Cookies Increase Flight Prices?
July 3 2019
By Sophie Barber

“Staples, for example, has offered discounted prices based on whether rival stores are within 20 miles of its customers’ location.”

Wall Street Journal
Websites Vary Prices, Deals Based on Users’ Information
By Jennifer Valentino-DeVries, Jeremy Singer-Vine and Ashkan Soltani
Dec. 24, 2012

When the Device You Use Determines the Price You Get
By Fox Van Allen
October 28, 2014

Northeastern University
Study: some online shoppers pay more than others
By Greg St. Martin,
October 23, 2014

Northeastern University
Measuring Price Discrimination and Steering
on E-commerce Web Sites
By Aniko Hannak, Gary Soeller, David Lazer, Alan Mislove, Christo Wilson

Mac users pay more than PC users, says Orbitz
By Larry Dignan
June 25, 2012

The travel site says Mac users will pay $20 to $30 a night more on hotels than PC users.

Orbitz has found that Apple users spend as much as 30% more a night on hotels, so the online travel site is starting to show them different, and sometimes costlier, options than Windows visitors see.

Wall Street Journal
On Orbitz, Mac Users Steered to Pricier Hotels
By Dana Mattioli
Updated Aug. 23, 2012

Wall Street Journal
Websites Vary Prices, Deals Based on Users’ Information
By Jennifer Valentino-DeVries, Jeremy Singer-Vine, and Ashkan Soltani
Dec. 24, 2012

Carnegie Mellon University
Automated Experiments on Ad Privacy Settings: A Tale of Opacity, Choice, and Discrimination
Amit Datta, M. Tschantz, Anupam Datta
Published 27 August 2014
Full PDF:

or via Semantics Scholar:
“females received fewer instances of an ad encouraging the taking of high paying jobs than males.”

Facebook sued for employment, housing, and credit advertising… illegal. Continued even after made changes to cultural categories
Maastricht University
Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law
Volume 28, Issue 3, June 2021, Pages 283-286
Editorial: Discrimination in Online AdvertisingBy Caroline Cauffman
Full PDF (heads up, it makes calls to Google)

Through talent match feature

Displays candidates with whatever bias the employer has due to AI matching machine learning

California Law Review
Big Data’s Disparate Impact
Solon Barocas, Microsoft Research; Cornell University
Andrew D. Selbst, UCLA School of Law
Sep 30, 2016

The New Yorker
“Reid Hoffman’s Big Dreams for LinkedIn”
Nicholas Lemann
October 10, 2015

Inf News
The “big data killing”, which has been repeatedly taught, was sprayed
By Ma Tianyu on the hot search

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